Music is the most beautiful form of art that communicates through a variety of musical instruments that produce sounds, rhythms, and tones. The oldest musical instrument dates back to the rich heritage and after that many varieties have been introduced, each with its own unique sound and quality.
These instruments are divided into many categories depending on the different types of classification. A meaningful classification is based on the mechanism used to produce sound, according to which instruments are divided into five basic categories.
Explore here some of the most significant types of musical instruments:
String instruments produce sound through the mechanism of a vibrating string. The strings are composed of metal, synthetic or natural materials and are of different thicknesses, weights, lengths and tensions. The composition, dimension and weight of the strings play an integral role in the quality of the sound produced. When strings are thick and heavy, the vibration is slow, resulting in a lower tone, while a faster vibration results in a higher tone. Some of the most common types of string instruments are guitar, piano, violin, cello, viola, double bass, mandolin, harp and santoor.
Wind instruments are those in which sound is produced by the vibration of the air in a pipe or tube. The key factor influencing the tone of the sound produced is the frequency of the air vibration, which depends largely on the size of the air chamber or tube. The larger the size of the air chamber, the deeper the sound produced. Some instruments such as the flute have holes in the tube to change the tone of the sound. Covering and uncovering these holes changes the path of the air, which directly affects the size of the air chamber that changes the frequency and eventually the pitch. Some of the most popular wind instruments are the flute, clarinet, bassoon, English horn, saxophone, bagpipe and harmonica.
Brass instruments produce a unique sound nature and texture. They work on the principle of air vibration and sound frequency. The step produced is directly related to the size of the air chamber which depends on the size and length of the tube, pipe or instrument. The larger the chamber size, the lower the pitch of the sound. These instruments have orifices or valves that are used to control the passage of air. Pressing a valve changes the path of the air that affects the sound wave by changing the length of the pipe. Thus, by shortening and lengthening the size of the pipe, the tone of sound is modified as desired. Some common wind instruments are the trumpet, the cornet, the shell and the horn.
Percussion instruments produce sound waves when struck or shaken by any type of object. The vibration and wave produced depend on the type of surface and the type of material used to hit the surface of the instrument. In addition, the thickness and size of the material also influences sound quality and vibration. In addition, different sounds are produced by hitting different areas of the instrument surface. Some significant instruments under this category are the drum, xylophone, cymbal, marimba, triangle, bell, tambourine and wooden block.
Electronic instruments are the new generation of musical instruments introduced in recent years. They produce sound using advanced technology and electronic media. Most of these instruments such as piano keyboards, octopuses, samplers and synthesizers are designed to produce exciting music in an easy to use way.